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Review

Review of studies on target acquisition in virtual reality based on the crossing paradigm

DOI:10.3724/SP.J.2096-5796.2019.0006

2019, 1(3) : 251-264

Abstract (257) | PDF (57) | HTML (187)
Crossing is a fundamental paradigm for target selection in human-computer interaction systems. This paradigm was first introduced to virtual reality (VR) interactions by Tu et al., who investigated its performance in comparison to pointing, and concluded that crossing is generally no less effective than pointing and has unique advantages. However, owing to the characteristics of VR interactions, there are still many factors to consider when applying crossing to a VR environment. Thus, this review summarizes the main techniques for object selection in VR and crossing-related studies. Then, factors that may affect crossing interactions are analyzed from the perspectives of the input space and visual space. The aim of this study is to provide a reference for future studies on target selection based on the crossing paradigm in virtual reality.

Article

Haptic interface using tendon electrical stimulation with consideration of multimodal presentation

DOI:10.3724/SP.J.2096-5796.2019.0011

2019, 1(2) : 163-175

Abstract (324) | PDF (34) | HTML (216)
Background
Our previous studies have shown that electrical stimulation from the skin surface to the tendon region (Tendon Electrical Stimulation: TES) can elicit a force sensation, and adjusting the current parameters can control the amount of the sensation. TES is thought to present a proprioceptive force sensation by stimulating receptors or sensory nerves responsible for recognizing the magnitude of the muscle contraction existing inside the tendon, so it can be a proprioceptive module of a small-size, low-cost force feedback device. But there is also suspect that TES presents only strong, noisy skin sensation. From previous study, it was found that TES has some limitation on varying sensations.
Methods
In this study, in addition to characterizing the proprioceptive sensation induced by TES, we constructed a multimodal presentation system reproducing a situation in which force is applied to the hand was offered, so as to investigate whether TES contributed to the reproduction of haptics cooperating with other modalities, rather than disturbing them. Specifically, we used vibration to present a cutaneous sensation and a visual head mounted display (HMD) system to present simultaneous images. Using this system, we also evaluated the efficacy of TES itself and that of the multimodal system involving TES.
Results
We found that TES, along with visual and vibration stimulation, contributed to the perception of a certain force.
Conclusions
Thus, TES appears to be an effective component of multimodal force sense presentation systems.