Navigation in virtual and real environment using brain computer interface：a progress report
Brain Computer Interface (BCI) provides the possibility of bypassing the peripheral nervous system and directly communicating with surrounding devices. The navigation technology using BCI has gone through the process of exploring the prototype paradigm in the virtual environment to accurately completing the locomotion intention of the operator in the form of a powered wheelchair or mobile robot in the real environment. This paper gives a brief overview of BCI navigation applications that have been used in both real and virtual environments in the past 20 years. Horizontal comparison is conducted between various paradigms applied to BCI and their unique signal processing methods. In view of the shift in control mode from synchronous to asynchronous, the development trend of navigation applications in the virtual environment is also reviewed. The contradiction between high-level commands and low-level commands is introduced as the main line to review the two major applications of BCI navigation in the real environment: mobile robot and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Finally, toward the popularization of BCI navigation applications to scenarios outside the laboratory, research challenges including human factors in navigation application interaction design and the feasibility of hybrid BCI for BCI navigation are discussed in detail.
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