Adv Search
Home | Accepted | Article In Press | Current Issue | Archive | Special Issues | Collections | Featured Articles | Statistics

2020, 2(4): 330-344 Published Date:2020-8-20

DOI: 10.1016/j.vrih.2020.07.006

Interaction design for paediatric emergency VR training

Full Text: PDF (5) HTML (114)

Export: EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | BibTex | RefWorks


Virtual reality (VR) in healthcare training has increased adoption and support, but efforts are still required to mitigate usability concerns.
This study conducted a usability study of an in-use emergency medicine VR training application, available on commercially available VR hardware and with a standard interaction design. Nine users without prior VR experience but with relevant medical expertise completed two simulation scenarios for a total of 18 recorded sessions. They completed NASA Task Load Index and System Usability Scale questionnaires after each session, and their performance was recorded for the tracking of user errors.
Results and Conclusions
Our results showed a medium (and potentially optimal) Workload and an above average System Usability Score. There was significant improvement in several factors between users’ first and second sessions, notably increased Performance evaluation. User errors with the strongest correlation to usability were not directly tied to interaction design, however, but to a limited ‘possibility space’. Suggestions for closing this ‘gulf of execution’ were presented, including ‘voice control’ and ‘hand-tracking’, which are only feasible for this commercial product now with the availability of the Oculus Quest headset. Moreover, wider implications for VR medical training were outlined, and potential next steps towards a standardized design identified.
Keywords: Virtual reality ; Medical training ; Human-Centred design ; Interaction design

Cite this article:

TJ MATTHEWS, Feng TIAN, Tom DOLBY. Interaction design for paediatric emergency VR training. Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware, 2020, 2(4): 330-344 DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2020.07.006

1. Virtual Reality Society.

2. Vaughan N, Dubey V N, Wainwright T W, Middleton R G. A review of virtual reality based training simulators for orthopaedic surgery. Medical Engineering & Physics, 2016, 38(2): 59‒71 DOI:10.1016/j.medengphy.2015.11.021

3. Vaughan N, Gabrys B, Dubey V N. An overview of self-adaptive technologies within virtual reality training. Computer Science Review, 2016, 22: 65–87 DOI:10.1016/j.cosrev.2016.09.001

4. Moglia A, Ferrari V, Morelli L, Ferrari M, Mosca F, Cuschieri A. A systematic review of virtual reality simulators for robot-assisted surgery. European Urology, 2016, 69(6): 1065‒1080 DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.09.021

5. Cohen L, Duboé P, Buvat J, Melton D, Khadikar A, Shah H. Augmented and virtual reality in operations. 2018

6. Indhumathi C, Chen W, Cai Y Y. Multi-modal VR for medical simulation. International Journal of Virtual Reality, 2009, 8(1): 1–7 DOI:10.20870/ijvr.2009.8.1.2707

7. Kleven N F, Prasolova-Førland E, Fominykh M, Hansen A, Rasmussen G, Sagberg L M, Lindseth F. Training nurses and educating the public using a virtual operating room with Oculus Rift. In: 2014 International Conference on Virtual Systems & Multimedia (VSMM). Hong Kong, China, IEEE, 2014, 206‒213 DOI:10.1109/vsmm.2014.7136687

8. Harrington C M, Kavanagh D O, Quinlan J F, Ryan D, Dicker P, O'Keeffe D, Traynor O, Tierney S. Development and evaluation of a trauma decision-making simulator in Oculus virtual reality. The American Journal of Surgery, 2018, 215(1): 42–47 DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.02.011

9. Crosby L E, Real F J, Cruse B, Davis D, Klein M, McTate E, Hood A M, Brinkman W, Hackworth R, Quinn C T. An immersive virtual reality curriculum for pediatric providers on shared decision making for hydroxyurea. Blood, 2019, 134(Supplement_1): 3402 DOI:10.1182/blood-2019-128661

10. Jacklin S, Chapman S, Maskrey N. Virtual patient educational intervention for the development of shared decision-making skills: a pilot study. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning, 2019, 5(4): 215–217 DOI:10.1136/bmjstel-2018-000375

11. Chang T P, Beshay Y, Hollinger T, Sherman J M. Comparisons of stress physiology of providers in real-life resuscitations and virtual reality-simulated resuscitations. Simulation in Healthcare, 2019, 14(2): 104‒112 DOI:10.1097/sih.0000000000000356

12. Resuscitation VR. Version 1.0. Luton: AiSolve. 2017

13. Jerald J. The VR Book: Human-centered design for virtual reality. New York, ACM Press, 2016

14. Norman D A. The design of everyday things. Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2013

15. Alger M. Visual design methods for virtual reality. Dissertation for the Masters' Degree. London, Ravensbourne University, 2015

16. Boletsis C, Cedergren J E. VR locomotion in the new era of virtual reality: an empirical comparison of prevalent techniques. Advances in Human-computer Interaction, 2019, 1–15 DOI:10.1155/2019/7420781

17. Ntokos K. Techniques on multiplatform movement and interaction systems in a virtual reality context for games. In: Advances in Multimedia and Interactive Technologies. IGI Global, 2019, 199–216 DOI:10.4018/978-1-5225-5912-2.ch009

18. Calandra D, Lamberti F, Migliorini M. On the usability of consumer locomotion techniques in serious games: comparing arm swinging, treadmills and walk-in-place. In: 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE-Berlin). Berlin, Germany, IEEE, 2019, 348–352 DOI:10.1109/icce-berlin47944.2019.8966165

19. Oculus. Thumbs up: hand tracking on oculus quest this week. 2019

20. Valve. Controllers-Valve Index. 2019

21. Freina L, Ott M. A literature review on immersive virtual reality in education: state of the art and perspectives. In: The International Scientific Conference E-learning and Software for Education. 2015, 1(133): 10–1007

22. Jensen L, Konradsen F. A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training. Education and Information Technologies, 2018, 23(4): 1515–1529 DOI:10.1007/s10639-017-9676-0

23. Carruth D W. Virtual reality for education and workforce training. In: 2017 15th International Conference on Emerging ELearning Technologies and Applications (ICETA). Stary Smokovec, Slovakia, IEEE, 2017, 1‒6 DOI:10.1109/iceta.2017.8102472

24. AiSolve. Resuscitation VR on Oculus Rift. 2019

25. AiSolve. Resuscitation VR on Oculus Go. 2019

26. Unity Technologies. Unity. 2020

27. Fournier J P, Demeester A, Charlin B. Script concordance tests: guidelines for construction. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 2008, 8(1): 1–7 DOI:10.1186/1472-6947-8-18

28. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Wiki. Standing VR. 2017

29. Gepp M. Roomscale 101-An Introduction to Roomscale VR. 2017

30. Oculus. Oculus Utilities for Unity. 2020

31. Hart S G. Nasa-task load index (NASA-TLX); 20 years later. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2006, 50(9): 904–908 DOI:10.1177/154193120605000909

32. Brooke J. SUS: a retrospective. Journal of Usability Studies, 2013, 8(2): 29‒40

33. Reason J. Human error. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990

34. Dumas J. Usability testing methods: think-aloud protocols. In: Design by people for people: Essays on usability, Usability Professionals' Association, 2001, 119–130

35. Lewis J R, Sauro J. Quantifying the user experience: Practical statistics for user research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012

36. Bogost I. The rhetoric of video games. In: The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning, MIT Press, 2008, 117–139 DOI:10.1162/dmal.9780262693646.117

37. Jones S E. The meaning of video games: gaming and textual strategies. Oxfordshire, Routledge, 2008

38. Cooke L, Dusenberry L, Robinson J. Gaming design thinking: wicked problems, sufficient solutions, and the possibility space of games. Technical Communication Quarterly, 2020, 1–14 DOI:10.1080/10572252.2020.1738555

39. Caravella E. Teaching gamefully: proceduralizing the classroom through possibility space pedagogy. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Virgina, George Mason University, 2019

40. Miller N, Willemsen P, Feyen R. Comparing interface affordances for controlling a push broom in VR. In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR). Reutlingen, Germany, IEEE, 2018, 635‒636 DOI:10.1109/vr.2018.8446510

41. Gordon C L, Shea T M, Noelle D C, Balasubramaniam R. Affordance compatibility effect for word learning in virtual reality. Cognitive Science, 2019, 43(6): e12742 DOI:10.1111/cogs.12742

42. Ruffaldi E, Bardy B T, Gopher D, M.Feedback Bergamasco, affordances, and accelerators for training sports in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 2011, 20(1): 33–46 DOI:10.1162/pres_a_00034

43. Slater M, Steed A. A virtual presence counter. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2000, 9(5): 413‒434 DOI:10.1162/105474600566925

44. Keskitalo T. Students' expectations of the learning process in virtual reality and simulation-based learning environments. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2012, 28(5): 841–856 DOI:10.14742/ajet.820

45. Wang H G, Ma Z H, Cao M M. VR shooting training system interaction design. In: 2018 International Conference on Virtual Reality and Visualization (ICVRV). Qingdao, China, IEEE, 2018, 160‒161 DOI:10.1109/icvrv.2018.00057

46. Maravilla M M, Cisneros A, Stoddard A, Stretching D, Murray B, Redmiles E. Defining virtual reality: Insights from research and practice. In: iConference 2019 Proceedings. iSchools, 2019, 1‒5 DOI:10.21900/iconf.2019.103338

47. Cordar A, Wendling A, White C, Lampotang S, Lok B. Repeat after me: Using mixed reality humans to influence best communication practices. 2017 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), 2017, 148–156 DOI:10.1109/vr.2017.7892242

48. Balint B N. [DC] designing VR for teamwork: the influence of HMD VR communication capabilities on teamwork competencies. In: 2019 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR). Osaka, Japan, IEEE, 2019, 1365‒1366 DOI:10.1109/vr.2019.8798147

49. Pratt P, Ives M, Lawton G, Simmons J, Radev N, Spyropoulou L, Amiras D. Through the HoloLens™ looking glass: augmented reality for extremity reconstruction surgery using 3D vascular models with perforating vessels. European Radiology Experimental, 2018, 2(1): 1–7 DOI:10.1186/s41747-017-0033-2

50. Silva J N A, Southworth M, Raptis C, Silva J. Emerging applications of virtual reality in cardiovascular medicine. JACC: Basic to Translational Science, 2018, 3(3): 420–430 DOI:10.1016/j.jacbts.2017.11.009

51. Wozniak P, Vauderwange O, Mandal A, Javahiraly N, Curticapean D. Possible applications of the LEAP motion controller for more interactive simulated experiments in augmented or virtual reality. In: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications. Proc SPIE 9946, Optics Education and Outreach IV, San Diego, California, USA, 2016, 9946 DOI:10.1117/12.2237673

52. Strazdins G, Pedersen B S, Zhang H X, Major P. Virtual reality using gesture recognition for deck operation training. OCEANS 2017-Aberdeen, 2017, 1–6 DOI:10.1109/oceanse.2017.8084584

53. Schlattman M, Klein R. Simultaneous 4 gestures 6 DOF real-time two-hand tracking without any markers. In: Proceedings of the 2007 ACM symposium on Virtual reality software and technology-VRST '07. Newport Beach, California, New York, ACM Press, 2007, 39‒42 DOI:10.1145/1315184.1315188

54. Pan Z G, Li Y, Zhang M M, Sun C, Guo K D, Tang X, Zhou S Z. A real-time multi-cue hand tracking algorithm based on computer vision. In: 2010 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference (VR). Waltham, MA, USA, IEEE, 2010, 219–222 DOI:10.1109/vr.2010.5444787

55. Wang R Y, Popović J. Real-time hand-tracking with a color glove. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 2009, 28(3): 1–8 DOI:10.1145/1531326.1531369

56. Oculus. Hand Tracking. 2020

57. Latham K, Kot P, Wariach A, Al-Jumeily D, Puthuran M, Chandran A. A review on the development of a virtual reality learning environment for medical simulation and training. In: 2019 International Conference on Applications and Systems of Visual Paradigms. Rome, IARIA, 2019, 1–5

58. Schild J, Misztal S, Roth B, Flock L, Luiz T, Lerner D, Herkersdorf M, Weaner K, Neuberaer M, Franke A, Kemp C, Pranqhofer J, Seele S, Buhler H, Herpers R. Applying multi-user virtual reality to collaborative medical training. In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR). 2018, 775‒776 DOI:10.1109/VR.2018.8446160

email E-mail this page

Articles by authors