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Three-dimensional virtual-real mapping of aircraft autom-atic spray operation and online simulation monitoring


2019, 1(6) : 611-621

摘要 (49) | PDF (7) | HTML (21)
This study aims at addressing the lack of closed-loop feedback optimization-enabling tool in aircraft automatic spraying systems; we systematically analyze a three-dimensional (3D) virtual-real mapping technique, namely the digital twin technique, used by the automatic spraying system.
With the sensors installed in the spraying system, the spraying working parameters are collected online and are used for driving the 3D virtual spraying system to realize the total-factor monitoring of the spraying operation. Furthermore, the operation-evaluation model is applied for analyzing and managing the key indexes of the spraying quality; once the data value of the key indexes exceeds a threshold, the operation shall be optimized automatically.
This approach can effectively support the high-efficiency analysis, evaluation, and optimization of the spraying process.


Flow-based SLAM: From geometry computation to learning


2019, 1(5) : 435-460

摘要 (170) | PDF (19) | HTML (97)
Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has attracted considerable research interest from the robotics and computer-vision communities for >30 years. With steady and progressive efforts being made, modern SLAM systems allow robust and online applications in real-world scenes. We examined the evolution of this powerful perception tool in detail and noticed that the insights concerning incremental computation and temporal guidance are persistently retained. Herein, we denote this temporal continuity as a flow basis and present for the first time a survey that specifically focuses on the flow-based nature, ranging from geometric computation to the emerging learning techniques. We start by reviewing two essential stages for geometric computation, presenting the de facto standard pipeline and problem formulation, along with the utilization of temporal cues. The recently emerging techniques are then summarized, covering a wide range of areas, such as learning techniques, sensor fusion, and continuous-time trajectory modeling. This survey aims at arousing public attention on how robust SLAM systems benefit from a continuously observing nature, as well as the topics worthy of further investigation for better utilizing the temporal cues.


Effect of haptic feedback on a virtual lab about friction


2019, 1(4) : 428-434

摘要 (169) | PDF (11) | HTML (191)
With the increase in recent years of the utilization of multimedia devices in education, new haptic devices for education have been gradually adopted and developed. As compared with visual and auditory channels, the development of applications with a haptic channel is still in the initial stages. For example, it is unclear how force feedback influences an instructional effect of an educational application and the subjective feeling of users.
In this study, we designed an educational application with a haptic device (Haply) to explore the effects of force feedback on self-learning. Subjects in an experiment group used a designed application to study friction by themselves using force feedback, whereas subjects in a control group studied the same knowledge without force feedback. A post-test and questionnaire were designed to assess the learning outcomes.
The experimental result indicates that force feedback is beneficial to an educational application, and using a haptic device can improve the effect of the application and motivate students.


Review of studies on target acquisition in virtual reality based on the crossing paradigm


2019, 1(3) : 251-264

摘要 (665) | PDF (69) | HTML (375)
Crossing is a fundamental paradigm for target selection in human-computer interaction systems. This paradigm was first introduced to virtual reality (VR) interactions by Tu et al., who investigated its performance in comparison to pointing, and concluded that crossing is generally no less effective than pointing and has unique advantages. However, owing to the characteristics of VR interactions, there are still many factors to consider when applying crossing to a VR environment. Thus, this review summarizes the main techniques for object selection in VR and crossing-related studies. Then, factors that may affect crossing interactions are analyzed from the perspectives of the input space and visual space. The aim of this study is to provide a reference for future studies on target selection based on the crossing paradigm in virtual reality.


Haptic interface using tendon electrical stimulation with consideration of multimodal presentation


2019, 1(2) : 163-175

摘要 (759) | PDF (51) | HTML (385)
Our previous studies have shown that electrical stimulation from the skin surface to the tendon region (Tendon Electrical Stimulation: TES) can elicit a force sensation, and adjusting the current parameters can control the amount of the sensation. TES is thought to present a proprioceptive force sensation by stimulating receptors or sensory nerves responsible for recognizing the magnitude of the muscle contraction existing inside the tendon, so it can be a proprioceptive module of a small-size, low-cost force feedback device. But there is also suspect that TES presents only strong, noisy skin sensation. From previous study, it was found that TES has some limitation on varying sensations.
In this study, in addition to characterizing the proprioceptive sensation induced by TES, we constructed a multimodal presentation system reproducing a situation in which force is applied to the hand was offered, so as to investigate whether TES contributed to the reproduction of haptics cooperating with other modalities, rather than disturbing them. Specifically, we used vibration to present a cutaneous sensation and a visual head mounted display (HMD) system to present simultaneous images. Using this system, we also evaluated the efficacy of TES itself and that of the multimodal system involving TES.
We found that TES, along with visual and vibration stimulation, contributed to the perception of a certain force.
Thus, TES appears to be an effective component of multimodal force sense presentation systems.