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    Review

  • Effects of using headset-delivered virtual reality in road safety research: A systematic review of empirical studies
    Daniel VANKOV, David JANKOVSZKY

    DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2021.05.005

    2021, 3(5) : 351-368

    Abstract(181) PDF (17) HTML (167)
    To reduce serious crashes, contemporary research leverages opportunities provided by technology. A potentially higher added value to reduce road trauma may be hidden in utilising emerging technologies, such as headset-delivered virtual reality (VR). However, there is no study to analyse the application of such VR in road safety research systematically. Using the PRISMA protocol, our study identified 39 papers presented at conferences or published in scholarly journals. In those sources, we found evidence of VR's applicability in studies involving different road users (drivers, pedestrians, cyclists and passengers). A number of articles were concerned with providing evidence around the potential adverse effects of VR, such as simulator sickness. Other work compared VR with conventional simulators. VR was also contributing to the emerging field of autonomous vehicles. However, few studies leveraged the opportunities that VR presents to positively influence the involved road users' behaviour. Based on our findings, we identified pathways for future research.
  • Article

  • Analysis of teenagers' preferences and concerns regarding HMDs in education
    Jie GUO, Dongdong WENG, Yue LIU, Qiyong CHEN, Yongtian WANG

    DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2021.09.004

    2021, 3(5) : 369-382

    Abstract(145) PDF (8) HTML (137)
    Background
    Virtual reality (VR) has become a powerful and promising tool for education, and numerous studies have investigated the application and effectiveness of VR education. However, few studies have focused on the expectations and concerns of teenagers regarding head-mounted displays (HMDs), which are used for this purpose.
    Methods
    In this paper, we aim to explore the current problems and necessary advancements required in VR education based on a survey of 163 senior high school students who experience VR educational content for 1h. The usability and comfort of the HMD system, the physical and psychological effects on the students, and their preferences and concerns are investigated.
    Results
    The results show that HMDs increase students' interest, concentration, and enthusiasm for learning. However, isolated virtual environments make students feel nervous and afraid. The immersive environment also makes them worry about VR addiction and confusing the physical world with the virtual one.
    Conclusions
    VR has great potential in the field of education, but the issue of safety needs to be considered in the future.
  • Interactive hepatic parenchymal transection simulation with haptic feedback
    Hongyu WU, Haonan YU, Fan YE, Jian SUN, Yuan GAO, Ke Tan, Aimin HAO

    DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2021.09.003

    2021, 3(5) : 383-396

    Abstract(143) PDF (3) HTML (132)
    Background
    Liver resection involves surgical removal of a portion of the liver. It is used to treat liver tumors and liver injuries. The complexity and high-risk nature of this surgery prevents novice doctors from practicing it on real patients. Virtual surgery simulation was developed to simulate surgical procedures to enable medical professionals to be trained without requiring a patient, a cadaver, or an animal. Therefore, there is a strong need for the development of a liver resection surgery simulation system. We propose a real-time simulation system that provides realistic visual and tactile feedback for hepatic parenchymal transection.
    Methods
    The tetrahedron structure and cluster-based shape matching are used for physical model construction, topology update of a three-dimensional liver model soft deformation simulation, and haptic rendering acceleration. During the liver parenchyma separation simulation, a tetrahedral mesh is used for surface triangle subdivision and surface generation of the surgical wound. The shape-matching cluster is separated via component detection on an undirected graph constructed using the tetrahedral mesh.
    Results
    In our system, cluster-based shape matching is implemented on a GPU, whereas haptic rendering and topology updates are implemented on a CPU. Experimental results show that haptic rendering can be performed at a high frequency (>900Hz), whereas mesh skinning and graphics rendering can be performed at 45fps. The topology update can be executed at an interactive rate (>10Hz) on a single CPU thread.
    Conclusions
    We propose an interactive hepatic parenchymal transection simulation method based on a tetrahedral structure. The tetrahedral mesh simultaneously supports physical model construction, topology update, and haptic rendering acceleration.
  • Training birdsong recognition using virtual reality
    Carlos ARCE-LOPERA, María José ARIAS, Gustavo CORRALES

    DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2021.09.001

    2021, 3(5) : 397-406

    Abstract(126) PDF (2) HTML (135)
    Background
    In mega-biodiverse environments, where different species are more likely to be heard than seen, species monitoring is generally performed using bioacoustics methodologies. Furthermore, since bird vocalizations are reasonable estimators of biodiversity, their monitoring is of great importance in the formulation of conservation policies. However, birdsong recognition is an arduous task that requires dedicated training in order to achieve mastery, which is costly in terms of time and money due to the lack of accessibility of relevant information in field trips or even specialized databases. Immersive technology based on virtual reality (VR) and spatial audio may improve species monitoring by enhancing information accessibility, interaction, and user engagement.
    Methods
    This study used spatial audio, a Bluetooth controller, and a head-mounted display (HMD) to conduct an immersive training experience in VR. Participants moved inside a virtual world using a Bluetooth controller, while their task was to recognize targeted birdsongs. We measured the accuracy of recognition and user engagement according to the User Engagement Scale.
    Results
    The experimental results revealed significantly higher engagement and accuracy for participants in the VR-based training system than in a traditional computer-based training system. All four dimensions of the user engagement scale received high ratings from the participants, suggesting that VR-based training provides a motivating and attractive environment for learning demanding tasks through appropriate design, exploiting the sensory system, and virtual reality interactivity.
    Conclusions
    The accuracy and engagement of the VR-based training system were significantly high when tested against traditional training. Future research will focus on developing a variety of realistic ecosystems and their associated birds to increase the information on newer bird species within the training system. Finally, the proposed VR-based training system must be tested with additional participants and for a longer duration to measure information recall and recognition mastery among users.
  • Lessons learned from requirements gathering for virtual reality simulators
    Vivian GÓMEZ, Kelly PEÑARANDA, Pablo FIGUEROA

    DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2021.09.002

    2021, 3(5) : 407-422

    Abstract(158) PDF (1) HTML (140)
    Background
    This paper shows how current collaborative virtual environments (VEs) such as Mozilla Hubs and AltspaceVR can aid in the task of requirements gathering in VR for simulation and training.
    Methods
    We performed a qualitative study on our use of these technologies in the requirements gathering of two projects.
    Results
    Our results show that requirements gathering in virtual reality has an impact on the process of requirements identification. We report advantages and shortcomings that will be of interest to future practitioners. For example, we found that VR sessions for requirements gathering in current VEs could benefit from better pointers and better sound quality.
    Conclusion
    Current VEs are useful for the requirements gathering task in the development of VR simulators and VR training environments.
  • Procedural modeling applied to the 3D city model of Bogota: A case study
    Gustavo ALOMÍA, Diego LOAIZA, Claudia ZÙÑIGA, Xun LUO, Rafael ASOREY-CACHEDA

    DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2021.06.002

    2021, 3(5) : 423-433

    Abstract(129) PDF (3) HTML (117)
    Background
    Computer Generated Animations (CGA), when applied to three-dimensional (3D) city models (3DCM), can be used as powerful tools to support urban decision-making. This leads to a new paradigm, based on procedural modeling, that allows the integration of known urban structures.
    Methods
    This paper introduces a new workflow for the development of high-quality approximations of urban models in a short time and enables facilities to be imported from other cities into a given city model, following specific generation rules.
    Results
    Thus, this workflow provides a very simple approach to observe, study, and simulate the implementation of models already developed in other cities, in a city where they are not yet adopted. Examples of these models include all types of mobility systems and urban infrastructure.
    Conclusions
    This allows us to perceive the environmental impact of certain decisions in the real world, as well as to carry out simple simulations to determine the changes that can occur in the flows of people, traffic, and other city activities.
  • Editorial

  • Virtual reality and augmented reality in medical simulation
    Aimin HAO

    DOI:10.3724/SP.J.2096-5796.2021.03.04

    2021, 3(4) : 1-1

    PDF (15) HTML (264)
  • Article

  • Orthodontic simulation system with force feedback for training complete bracket placement procedures
    Fan YE, Luwei LIU, Bin YAN, Xiaohan ZHAO, Aimin HAO

    DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2021.08.001

    2021, 3(4) : 261-273

    Abstract(310) PDF (14) HTML (317)
    Background
    A virtual system that simulates the complete process of orthodontic bracket placement can be used for pre-clinical skill training to help students gain confidence by performing the required tasks on a virtual patient.
    Methods
    The hardware for the virtual simulation system is built using two force feedback devices to support bi-manual force feedback operation. A 3D mouse is used to adjust the position of the virtual patient. A multi-threaded computational methodology is adopted to satisfy the requirements of the frame rate. The computation threads mainly consist of the haptic thread running at a frequency of >1000Hz and the graphic thread at >30Hz. The graphic thread allows the graphics engine to effectively display the visual effects of biofilm removal and acid erosion through texture mapping. Using the haptic thread, the physics engine adopts the hierarchy octree collision-detection algorithm to simulate the multi-point and multi-region interaction between the tools and the virtual environment. Its high efficiency guarantees that the time cost can be controlled within 1 ms. The physics engine also performs collision detection between the tools and particles, making it possible to simulate paint and removal of colloids. The surface-contact constraints are defined in the system; this ensures that the bracket will not divorce from or embed into the tooth during the adjustment of the bracket. Therefore, the simulated adjustment is more realistic and natural.
    Results
    A virtual system to simulate the complete process of orthodontic bracket bonding was developed. In addition to bracket bonding and adjustment, the system simulates the necessary auxiliary steps such as smearing, acid etching, and washing. Furthermore, the system supports personalized case training.
    Conclusions
    The system provides a new method for students to practice orthodontic skills.

Aims & Scope

Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware (VRIH) is an open access journal that aims to showcase and promote distinguished research in the field of virtual reality and intelligent hardware. It provides a global publishing and academic exchange platform for researchers, professionals and industry practitioners. The journal offers high-quality single-blind peer review and is published bimonthly in English.

Special Issues

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